Wednesday, June 20, 2018

asthma -

Asthma (in Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "gasping") is a common chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract characterized by recurrent and recurrent symptoms, reversible airway obstruction, and bronchial spasm. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, heavy chest, and shortness of breath.

Asthma was originally thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis is usually based on symptom patterns, response to therapy over a period of time, and spirometry. Asthma is classified clinically based on how often symptoms appear, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak of the expiratory flow rate. Asthma can also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic) in which atopy is associated with a predisposition to the development of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions.

Treatment for acute symptoms is usually by inhalation of a fast-reaction beta-2 agonist (eg salbutamol) and oral corticosteroids. [9] In very severe cases it may be necessary to administer intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate and hospitalization. These symptoms can be prevented by avoiding the originator, such as allergens and irritants, and with inhaled corticosteroid use. Beta agonist slow reaction (LABA) or leukotrien antagonist can be added, in addition to inhaled corticosteroid when asthma symptoms can not be controlled. The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. In 2011, 235-300 million people were afflicted with asthma globally, including 250,000 deaths.