Thursday, June 21, 2018

tuberculosis -

Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis, abbreviated Tbc), or Tb (short for "Tubercle bacillus") is a common contagious disease, and in many cases deadly. The disease is caused by various strains of mycobacteria, commonly Mycobacterium tuberculosis (abbreviated as "MTb" or "MTbc").

Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when someone with active TB infection coughs, sneezes, or spreads their saliva through the air. TB infection is generally asymptomatic and latent. Yet only one in ten cases of latent infection develop into active disease. If Tuberculosis is not treated then more than 50% of infected people can die.

Classic symptoms of active TB infection are chronic cough with sputum or sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. (formerly TB is called "consumption" disease because infected people usually experience weight loss.) Infection of other organs presents various symptoms. The diagnosis of active TB depends on radiological results (usually through chest x-ray) as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture making of body fluids.

Meanwhile, the diagnosis of latent TB depends on the tuberculin skin test / tuberculin skin test (TST) and blood test. Treatment is difficult and requires the provision of many kinds of antibiotics in the long term. People who are in contact should also undergo screening tests and be treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in the infection of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). To prevent TB, everyone has to undergo screening tests for the disease and get Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination.

Experts believe that one-third of the world's population has been infected by M. tuberculosis, [3] and new infections have occurred at the rate of one person per second. In 2007, there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases active at the global level. [4] In 2010, an estimated 8.8 million new cases were added, and 1.5 million deaths were mostly in developing countries.

 The absolute number of Tuberculosis cases began to decline since 2006, while new cases began to decline since 2002.  Tuberculosis is not spread evenly throughout the world. Of the populations in various countries in Asia and Africa who tested tuberculin, 80% of them showed positive results, while in the United States, only 5-10% were positive. People in the developing world are increasingly suffering from Tuberculosis because of their weak immunity. Usually, they contract tuberculosis as a result of HIV infection and develop into AIDS. In the 1990s Indonesia was ranked 3rd in the world of TB sufferers, but the situation has improved and in 2013 became the 5th world rank.